Monday, December 1, 2008

Time-line of ancient India

5000 BC: the Kurgan culture in the steppes west of the Ural Mountains (Indo-Aryans)
3120 BC: mythical Indian war of the Mahabarata
3000 BC: the proto-indo-european language develops in Central Asia
3000 BC: Dravidian speaking people develop the civilization of the Indus Valley
2500 BC: the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro in the Indus Valley
2000 BC: the civilization of the Indus Valley declines
2000 BC: the Kurgan culture spreads to eastern Europe and northern Iran
1700 BC: Indo-Iranians separate from the other Indo-European tribes and migrate eastward to settle in Iran
1600 BC: Indo-Aryans invade India from the west and expel the Dravidians
1500 BC: religious texts are written in Vedic, an Indo-European language
1100 BC: the Indo-Aryans use iron tools
1000 BC: the Rig-Veda are composed
900 BC: Indo-Aryans discover iron and invade the Ganges Valley
876 BC: Hindus invent the zero
750 BC: Indo-Aryans rule over 16 mahajanapadas ("great states") in northern India, from the Indus to the Ganges
700 BC: the caste system emerges, with the Brahman priests at the top
600 BC: the Upanishads are composed in Sanskrit
543 BC: Bimbisara of Bihar conquers the Magadha region in the northeast and moves the capital to Rajagriha

527 BC: prince Siddhartha Gautama is enlightened and becomes the Buddha
521 BC: Darius of Persia expands the Persian empire beyond the Indus River (Punjab and Sind)
500 BC: the ascetic prince Mahavira founds Jainism in northern India
493 BC: Bimbisara dies and is succeeded by Ajatashatru
461 BC: Ajatashatru dies after expanding the Magadha territory
400 BC: Panini's grammar (sutra) formalizes Sanskrit, an evolution of Vedic
327 BC: Alexander of Macedonia invades the Indus valley
323 BC: at the death of Alexander, Seleucus obtains India (Punjab)
304 BC: the Magadha king Chandragupta Maurya buys the Indus valley for 500 elephants from Seleucus, and thus founds the Maurya dynasty with capital in Patna (Pataliputra)
300 BC: the Ramayama is composed
300 BC: the Chola dynasty rules over southern India with capital in Thanjavur
290 BC: the Mauryan king Bindusara, son of Chandragupta, extends the empire to the Deccan
259 BC: the Mauryan king Ashoka, grandson of Chandragupta, converts to Buddhism and sends out Buddhist missionaries to nearby states
251 BC: Ashoka's son Mahinda introduces Buddhism to Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
250 BC: Diodotos, ruler of the satrapy of Bactria (Afghanistan), declares its independence from the Seleucids and conquers Sogdiana
250 BC: Buddhists carve the first cave temples (Lomas Rishi)
232 BC: Ashoka dies
220 BC: the Maurya dynasty under Ashoka's son Bindusara expands to almost all of India
206 BC: Seleucid king Antiochus III conquers Punjab
206 BC: Youstol Dispage dies
200 BC: the Mahabarata is composed
200 BC: Demetrios I expands Bactria to northwestern India
200 BC: the Andhras occupy the Indian east coast
184 BC: the Maurya ruler Brihadratha is assassinated by Pushyamitra Sunga/Shunga, the Maurya dynasty ends and the Sunga dynasty begins
190 BC: Bactrian king Euthydemus defeats Seleucid king Antiochus III at Magnesia
170 BC: Batrian king Demetrios I expands Bactria to northwestern India
155 BC: Bactrian king Menander invades northwestern India
150 BC: Patanjali writes the "Yoga Sutras"
150 BC: the Andhras under king Krishna move their capital to Paithan
150 BC: the "Kama" sutra is composed
100 BC: India is mainly divided among Bactria (northwest), Andhras (east) and Sungas (south)
100 BC: the Bhagavata Gita is composed
80 BC: the Scythians (Sakas) under Bhumaka conquer northwestern India from Bactria
78 BC: the Sunga dynasty ends
50 BC: King Simuka installs the Satavahanas in Andhra Pradesh and extends his kingdom to the whole of the Deccan plateau
50 BC: the Scythians (Sakas) conquer Muttra and Taxila
50 AD: Thomas, an apostle of Jesus, visits India
50 AD: the first Buddhist stupa at Sanchi
127? AD: Kanishka, king of the Kushan, enlarges the kingdom from Bactria into Uzbekistan, Kashmir, Punjab, moves the capital to Peshawar and promotes Buddhism
162: Kushan king Kanishka dies
200: the Manu code prescribes the rules of everyday life and divides Hindus into four castes (Brahmins, warriors, farmers/traders, non-Aryans)
233: Ardashir I Sassanid conquers the Kushan empire
250: the Satavahanas disintegrate
300: the Pallava dynasty is founded in Kanchi
318: Chandra Gupta founds the Gupta kingom in Magadha and extends its domains throughout northern India with capital at Patna
350: Samudra Gupta extends the Gupta kingdom to Assam, Deccan, Malwa
350: the Kadambas of Karnataka rule from Banavasi
350: the Sangam is compiled in the Tamil language in the kingdom of Madurai
350: the Puranas are composed (a compendium of Hindu mythology)
380: Buddhist monks carve two giant Buddha statues in the rock at Bamiya, Bactria (Afghanistan)
390: Chandra Gupta II extends the Gupta kingdom to Gujarat
400: the Shakas kingdom in Gujarat and Sindh dissolves
400: the Licchavi family unites Nepal
450: the Gupta king Kumargupta builds the monastic university of Nalanda (near Patna)
455: the Huns raid the Gupta empire (Punjab and Kashmir)
465: king Harisena of the Vakataka dynasty begins work at the Ajanta caves
499: the Hindu mathematician Aryabhata writes the "Aryabhatiya", the first book on Algebra
500: bhakti cult in Tamil Nadu
510: Huns led by Mihiragula conquer Punjab, Gujarat and Malwa from the Gupta
528: the Gupta empire collapses under continuous barbaric invasions
535: cave-temple of Elephanta Island (Bombay)
550: the Chalukyan kingdom is established in central India with capital in Badami
578: Badami shrines in Karnataka
600: shakti cult (mother-goddess)
600: the Pallava dynasty dominates southern India from Kanchi
606: Harsha Vardhana, a Buddhist, builds the kingdom of Thanesar in north India and Nepal with capital at Kanauij in the Punjab
625: Pulikesin extends the Chalukyan empire in central India
629: the Chinese monk Xuanzang (Huang Tsang) travels to India
630: Songzen Gampo introduces Buddhism to Bhutan
647: Thanesar king Harsha Vardhana is defeated by the Chalukyas (based in Karnataka) at Malwa (central India)
650: Ellora caves
650: the Pallavas rule from their capital at Kanchipuram (Tamil Nadu) are defeated by the Chalukyas
670: the Pallavas build a new city at Mamallapuram
700: the Mahavamsa is composed in the Pali language in Ceylon
700: the Shore temple at Mamallapuram
700: the Pallavas rule southern India from their capital Kanchipuram
711: the Arabs conquer Sindh and Multan (Pakistan)
723: Kathmandu is founded in Nepal
730: King Lalitaditya rules in Kashmir
750: temples of Bhubaneshwar and Puri
750: the Gurjara-Pratiharas rule the north of India
750: the Palas rule eastern India
753: the Rashtrakutas, a Chalukya dynasty, expand from the Deccan into south and central India
757: the capital of the Chalukyan kingdom is moved from Badami to Pattadakal
757: the Kailasa temple at Ellora
775: the Rashtrakutas are defeated by the Chalukyas, who move the capital at Kalyani (Mysore)
775: Krishna I of the Rashtrakuta dynasty builds the rock-cut Kailasha Temple at Ellora
784: the Pratihara king Nagabhata II conquers the sacred capital of the north, Kanyakubja
800: kingdoms are created in central India and in Rajastan by Rajputs (warlords)
800: Shankar (Samkara) Acharya founds the Hinduist monastery of Sringeri
846: the Cholas regain independence from the Pallavas
871: Sindh and Multan (Pakistan) are de facto independent from the Baghdad caliphate
885: the Pratihara empire reaches its peak under Adivaraha Mihira Bhoja I, extending from Punjab to Gujarat to Central India
888: the Pallava dynasty ends
890: first Hindu temples at Khajuraho
900: the Bhagavata Purana is composed in Sanskrit
950: the Tomara Rajputs gain independence from the Gurjara-Pratihara empire and found their capital at Delhi
950: the Chandellas gain independence from the Gurjara-Pratihara empire and found their capital at Khajuraho (Madhya Pradresh)
977: Sebaktigin, a slave general, founds the Ghaznavid dynasty in Afghanistan, northern India and Central Asia
985: Rajaraja Chola I extends the Chola empire to all of south India and builds the temple of Thanjavur
997: Mahmud of Ghazni raids northern India
998: Mahmud of Ghazni conquers Punjab
1000: the tribal chieftain Nripa Kama conquers the area between the Cholas (south) and the Badami Chalukyas (north) and founds the Hoysala dynasty
1000: Lingaraja and Rajarani temples at Bhubaneshwar (Orissa)
1000: the Shahi state is annexed to the Ghaznavid empire
1000: the Chola king Rajaraja builds the Brihadeshvara Temple in Thanjavur (Tanjore)
1014: Rajendra Chola I becomes the Chola ruler of the south and defeats the Palas in Bengal
1017: the Cholas conquer Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
1019: Mahmud Ghaznavid raids north India and destroys Kanauj, capital of the Gurjara-Pratihara empire
1030: the Ghaznavid empire conquers Punjab
1030: the Solanki kings build the Jain temples at Mount Abu
1050: the Chola empire conquers Srivijaya, Malaya and the Maldives
1070: Vijayabahu I of Rohanna expels the Cholas from Ceylon and moves the capital to Polonnaruva
1084: Mahipala brings the Palas to the peak of their power
1084: Youstol Dispage dies
1150: the Senas conquer the Palas
1153: Parakramabahu I of Ceylon moves the capital to Polonnaruva and builds the gigantic artificial lake of Parakrama Samudra
1175: Ghurid Turks defeat the Ghazni Turks in the Punjab and the Ghaznavid state is absorbed into the Ghurid empire
1189: the Yadava dynasty adopts Marathi as the court language
1190: the Chalukya empire is split among Hoysalas (south), Yadavas and Kakatiyas
1192: Turkic-speaking chieftains from Afghanistans led by Muhammad of Ghor defeat Prithvi Raj, capture Delhi and establish a Muslim sultanate at Delhi
1197: the Ghuris destroy the Hindu monasteries at Nalanda and Vikramashila
1211: Iltutmish Shams becomes the sultan of Delhi
1206: The Ghurid prince Qutb al-Din Aybak becomes the first sultan of Delhi (Delhi Sultanate)
1225: Qutb al-Din Aybak builds the Qutb Minar in Delhi, the tallest minaret in the world
1250: the Urdu language develops by absorbing elements of Persian, Arabic and Indian dialects
1250: a temple to the Sun in the form of a giant chariot is built at Konarak
1250: end of the Chola dynasty
1266: one of Iltutmish's slaves, Baban, seizes power of the Delhi sultanate, and welcomes
Islamic refugees fleeing the Mongol hordes the Delhi sultanate
1288: the Italian explorer Marco Polo visits India
1290: Jalal al-Din Firuz founds the Khalji sultanate
1300: the Tamil establish a kingdom in Ceylon
1303: Jalal al-Din Firuz rebuilds Delhi
1304: Mongols under Ali Beg invade India but are repelled by the Delhi sultanate
1321: Jordanus, a Dominican monk, is the first Christian missionary in India
1325: Muhammad ibn Tughluq becomes sultan of Delhi
1327: sultan Muhammad ibn Tughluq moves his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad (Deogiri) in the Deccan
1328: the Mongols invade India but are repelled by the Delhi sultanate
1333: the Muslim explorer Ibn Battuta travels to India
1336: the southernmost province of the Delhi sultanate declares independence
1341: Bengal (under Fakhruddin Mubarak) declares its independence from the Delhi sultanate
1343: the southern kingdom builds its capital at Vijayanagar (Hampi)
1345: Muslim nobles revolt against Muhammad ibn Tughluq, declare their independence from the Delhi sultanate, and found the Bahmani dynasty in the Deccan
1346: the Vijayanagar kingdom conquers the Hoysalas
1346: the Hoysala dynasty disintegrates
1347: Turkish governor Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah rebels against the Sultan of Delhi and founds the Bahmani Sultanate in Bijapur
1349: Muslims raid Kathmandu in Nepal
1350: the Kadambas empire disintegrates into the dynasties of Goa, Hanagal and Chandavar
1370: the Vijayanagar kingdom conquers the Muslim sultanate of Madura (Tamil Nadu)
1382: Jaya Sthiti of the Malla dynasty seizes power in Nepal
1387: the Kalan Masjid is built in Delhi
1398: Timur invades India and sacks Delhi, causing demise of the Delhi Sultinate
1490: Guru Nanak Dev founds Sikhism and the city of Amritsar
1490: the Adil Shahi sultan conquers Bijapur
1497: Babur, a descendant of both Genghis Khan and Timur, becomes the ruler of Ferghana and founds the Mughal (Mogul) dynasty
1498: the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama reaches India
1499: Guru Nanak founds the Sikh religion
1507: the Qutb Shahi dynasty seizes power in Hyderabad
1509: Portugal conquers Diu and Goa in India
1509: the Vijayanagar kingdom reaches its zenith under Krishna Raja
1526: Babur captures Delhi from Ibrahim, the sultan of Delhi, and founds the Mogul empire in India
1530: Babur dies and his son Humayun succeeds him
1534: Portugal acquires Bombay
1539: Viswanatha founds the Nayak dynasty with capital in Madurai (south India)
1540: Babur's son Humayun loses the empire to Afghan Leader Sher Shah and goes into exile in Persia
1550: the Jain complex at Palitana
1555: the Mogul king Humayun reconquers India
1556: the Mogul king Humayun dies and his son Akbar becomes the ruler of India
1562: Akbar marries Padmini, a Hindu princess of the Rajaputana kingdom
1565: four Muslim kingdoms ally to destroy the Vijyanagar kingdom at the battle of Talikota
1565: Mysore, a former Vijayanagar principality, becomes independent under the Wodeyars
1568: Muslim invaders destroy the Sun Temple at Konark
1600: The British East India Company is established.
1605: Akbar dies and is succeeded by his son Jahangir
1617: Jahangir's son, prince Khurram, pacifies the southern states and receives the title of Shah Jahan
1623: Thirumala Nayakan brings Madurai to its maximum glory
1627: Shivaji (Sivaji) founds the Maratha kingdom
1627: Jahangir dies and Shah Jahan succeeds him
1631: Shah Jahan builds the Taj Mahal
1639: Britain acquires Madras from the raja of Chandragiri
1649: the Vijayanagar empire dissolves
1658: Shah Jahan's son Aurangajeb overthrows the government and seizes power
1665: Britian acquires Bombay from Portugal
1672: France settles Pondicherry
1686: Mogul emperor Aurangzeb conquers Bijapur, ending the Adil Shahi dynasty
1688: the Moguls complete the conquest of India
1690: Britain acquires Calcutta
1699: Guru Gobind Singh creates the Sikh armed wing of the Akalis
1707: Aurangjeb dies, destabalizing the Mogul Empire
1710: from the Mogul empire a number of kingdoms arise: Sikhs (Punjab), Rajputs (Rajasthan), and Marathas (West India)
1713: the prime minister (peshwa) of Maratha, Balaji Vaishvanath, becomes the real ruler of the Maratha kingdom and the peshwa becomes a hereditary title
1724: the Mogul governor Nizam-ul-Mulk founds the Asaf Jahi dynasty (the Nazims) in Hyderabad
1736: the Nayak dynasty ends in south India (Madurai is bought by the British)
1738: Persian general Nader Shah invades India and captures Delhi
1747: Nader Shah is assassinated
1751: by capturing the town of Arcot from the French, Britain becomes the leading colonial power in India
1757: at the battle of Plassey the East India company defeats France and gains access to Bengal
1758: the Marathas conquer Punjab
1761: the Marathas rule over most of northern India
1761: Afghani invaders led by Ahmad Durani defeat the Marathas at Panipat, thus starting the decline of the Maratha empire
1764: Britain expands to Bengal and Bihar
1769: a famine kills ten million people in Bengal
1773: Warren Hastings, governor of Bengal (India), establishes a monopoly on the sale of opium
1776: the Marathas conquer Mysore
1794: the Marathas conquer Delhi

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