Monday, December 1, 2008

Musa Khan Mosque

Musa Khan Mosque is located on the western side of the Shahidullah Hall of Dhaka University, and is less than half a km to the south of the Khwaja Shahbaz's Mosque. A high vaulted plinth with a three-domed mosque above and the grave of Musa Khan to its northeast comprise the mosque complex of Musa Khan. The whole complex was once enclosed by an outer wall, now completely gone.
The vaulted platform, 3.05m high, gives an outside measurement of 17.68m from north to south and 14.02m from east to west. Underneath the platform there are a series of rooms, now badly damaged. In the eastern side are three independent rooms, each of which could be entered from the east by a single archway. Each of these rooms is again divided into two halves by a wide north-south horizontal arch. Further beyond on the west are three independent rooms, each being connected with the eastern one by an archway. The southern most room in the eastern side has an additional opening on the southwestern corner, which leads to a narrow passage along the southern side underneath the platform. The passage ends with a small opening on the southwestern corner of the plinth. All these rooms contain bookshelves at the waist of the walls. In the western side below the plinth are three other independent rooms, each opening towards the west by a single archway. In these three rooms, having the same constructional peculiarities like those in the eastern side, now reside some madrasa students.
The top of the platform can be reached by an elongated stairway on the southwestern corner. The mosque proper (14.94m by 7.62m in the outside) occupies the western half of the platform. The four octagonal corner towers with extra minarets by their sides rise above the horizontal parapets and end in solid kiosks with cupolas on the top. The three arched doorways in the east, each opening out under a half-domed vault, consist of two successive arches - the outer one higher and wider than the inner one. The central doorway, bigger than its flanking counterparts, is set in a projected fronton with bordering ornamental turrets. Each of the north and south walls is also pierced with a single four-centred archway. The qibla wall is internally recessed with three semi-octagonal mihrab niches, which are all arched. The arch of the central mihrab is of multi-cusped variety, while those of the side ones are of plain four-centred type. The central mihrab, bigger than the side ones, is also projected outside having the usual ornamental turret on either side.
Of the three bays in the interior of the mosque the central one is bigger and square, 4.88m a side. Each of the smaller side bays measures 4.88m by 3.05m. Above the roof there are three shouldered domes on octagonal drums, one over each bay. The central dome is larger than the side ones and carried on two east-west wide arches together with four small half-domed squinches on the upper angles. The comparatively smaller side domes are supported by the traditional half-domed vaults on the east and west walls, the upper corners here are filled with triangular pendentives.
The under-ceilings of the vaulted rooms below the platform were originally embossed with tiered rosettes in stucco at intervals, traces of which still remain here and there. The eastern facade of the mosque proper originally had panels, but now made plain by applying cement plaster in recent times. The horizontal parapets are faced with rows of blind merlons. The octagonal drums have both internally and externally a basal course of merlons. All the domes are crowned with lotus and kalasa finials. The apex of each dome in the inside is decorated with a large painted medallion. The entire building, both inside and outside is now covered with cement plaster and washed white with lime.
The mosque had an inscription tablet over the central doorway, now missing. It is traditionally ascribed to musa khan (died in 1623), son of the famous Bara Bhuiyan chief isa khan. But the architectural style of the building does not conform to the tradition. In its panelled facade, the doorways opening out under half-domes, shouldered domes on octagonal drums and corner towers with extra minarets by their sides the so called Musa Khan's Mosque bears the closest similarity with the nearby Khwaja Shahbaz's Mosque (1679). A contemporary date may therefore be suggested for the building. AH Dani, however, thought that the mosque was possibly built in the time of shaista khan or even later by dewan manawar khan, grandson of Musa Khan. And in memory of his grandfather the builder named it after Musa Khan.
Like the Chawk Mosque (1676) and some others of the kind in the city of Dhaka, this mosque is built on a high terrace containing underneath a series of vaulted rooms with book-shelves on the walls. This particular specialty of the building suggests that it also must have originally been built as a 'madrasa mosque'.

Bibi Mariam's Mosque and Tomb

Bibi Mariam's Mosque and Tomb situated at Hajiganj locality in Narayanganj. The mosque is said to have been built by Nawab shaista khan, Mughal subahdar of Bengal (1664 - 1688) and ascribed to Bibi Mariam, presumably his daughter who lies buried close by. The mosque is of the three domed type, but has lost much of its original features through later repairs; especially the corner towers have been completely modernised. The eastern facade has usual three arched entrances - each opening under a half-dome, and the central one wider than the other two. The interior hall has simple lateral arches, but the reduction of the size of the side domes is achieved by thickening the side walls. The basal leaf decoration of the three domes and the battlemented merlons speak of the common style. The mosque has been repaired and renovated several times and extended; a verandah added on the east. It is now used as a Jami mosque.
The tomb, now greatly ruined, stands on an elevated spot in the middle of a quadrangle enclosed within a surrounding wall. It is a single domed square building having vaulted verandahs on all the four sides. The vaults have now fallen down, but some of the walls, pierced with arched doorways, still survive. The central square room contains the big masonry cenotaph of Bibi Mariam. presumably a daughter of Nawab Shaista Khan, Mughal subahdar of Bengal. The verandahs of the tomb building are now occupied by graves of less importance.

Khwaja Shahbaz's Mosque-Tomb

The Mosque built on a raised plot of land, measures externally 20.73m by 7.92m. The four corner towers, which are octagonal to the height of the horizontal parapets and then rounded upwards, are topped by small ribbed cupolas having kalasa finials. The eastern facade has a projected fronton in the middle through which opens out the central doorway fitted with a stone arched frame. It is flanked on either side by a smaller archway. All the three eastern openings consist of two successive arches - the outer ones having cuspings in their faces are higher than the inner ones of plain four-centred type with an ogee curve at the apex. There are two more archways - one each on the north and south walls. The western wall is internally recessed with three semi-octagonal mihrabs, of which the central one, being traditionally bigger, shows an outward projection. Beside the central mihrab there is a three-stepped mimbar. Both the projections of the central archway and the central mihrab have flanking turrets, and these are carried beyond the parapets which have cupolas crowned with kalasa finials at the top.
Two wide multi-cusped transverse arches, issuing from twin engaged brick pillars, divide the interior of the mosque into three equal bays 5.18m square, each roofed over with a low shouldered dome on a cylindrical drum. Crowned with lotus and kalasa finials, the domes are carried on two wide arches and blocked arches over the doorways and the mihrabs, and the phase of transition is achieved by means of half-domed squinches.
The flanking turrets have beautiful kalasa bases, the corner towers depict moulded bands at regular intervals and the parapet shows blind merlon decorations. Excepting the mihrabs and the archways, the entire plastered surface of the building is elegantly relieved with arched panels. The mihrab arches spring from beautifully tapering pilasters. The soffits of the mihrab arches are embellished with spearhead motifs, while their spandrels have floreate designs in stucco. The central dome has on the inside a basal frieze of projecting bricks set corner-wise topped by a twisted rope design, while at its apex there is a large medallion ornamented with a tiered rosette. The outer face of the stone-plinth and the topmost step of the mimbar have rows of floreate and blind cresting designs in shallow relief.
The Tomb stands to the northeast of the mosque. It consists of a square room and an attached verandah on the south. Strengthened with octagonal towers on the four exterior angles, the square apartment of the tomb is pierced with four axial doorways. All the doorways, excepting the southern one, are emphasised by projected frontons with fluted minarets on either side. The corner towers are extended beyond the horizontal parapets and topped by typical Mughal kiosks with kalasa finials.
The square tomb chamber, the centre of which is occupied by the cenotaph, is roofed over with a dome on an octagonal drum. Supported on four blocked arches on the four walls and squinches on the four upper angles the dome is crowned with a beautiful expanded lotus and kalasa final. The exterior faces including the octagonal towers of the building have been exquisitely decorated with panels, while the horizontal parapet is faced with a row of merlons.
The verandah on the south of the main tomb chamber is covered with a beautiful do-chala hut-shaped roof. It originally had three arched openings in the south and only one on each of the west and east walls. At present the southern side of the verandah is marked with a single wide opening. The arches of the verandah openings were cusped and issued from beautifully tapering pilasters.
Of the two extant monuments of Khwaja Shahbaz's building complex the mosque should specially be noted for the introduction of two uncommon features - the twin-pilasters for the support of the wide transverse arches and the beautiful spearhead ornamental motifs in the mihrab arches. The former must have been derived from the northern Indian Mughal examples, as in Shahjahan's Diwan-i-Am (1627) in the Agra Fort. The spearhead fringe motif also seems to have been a derivation from northern India, where it is very frequently noticed in the Sultanate monuments.

Kadam Rasul Allah

Kadam Rasul (also Kadam Rasul Allah) are shrines and mosques that contain stones believed to bear the footprint of Muhammad, the prophet and founder of Islam. Kadam Rasuls have been constructed in various traditions of Islamic architecture across the Middle East and South Asia.
In Bangladesh, the best known Kadam Rasul is that of Nabiganj, located across the Shitalakshya River from the city of Narayanganj. According to Mirza Nathan's Baharistan-i-Ghaibi, written during the early 17th century, this footprint was purchased from Arab merchants by Masum Khan Kabuli, an Afghan chief who had rebelled against the emperor Akbar. At the time a fortress built on raised ground marked the site. Inside it a shrine was erected in 1778 by Ghulam Nabi, a landlord of Dhaka. It is a single-domed structure with a verandah in front. In the middle of the chamber is the altar of the relic, which is usually kept in a metal dish submerged in rose water. The shallow imprint is cut in the shape of a foot; circular dents just below the upper edge indicate the toes. Incense, flowers, and money are offered at the shrine. The Mughal administrator Yasin Khan built a Kadam Rasul in 1719 in Chittagong, now in Bangladesh. It has a mosque in the centre, with two rooms on either side; one houses the footprint of Muhammad, and the other that of Abdul Qadir Gilani, a 12th century saint of Baghdad. There is another Kadam Rasul shrine in Bagicha Hat within Chandanaish zila of Chittagong District.

Shailkupa Mosque

Shailkupa Mosque a six domed mosque of the independent Sultanate period of Bengal. Situated at Shailkupa upazila sadar under Jhenaidaha district, it is one of the most beautiful architectural edifices of medieval Bengal. The mosque was built in c 1520 AD during the reign of Nasiruddin nusrat shah, son of Sultan Alauddin husain shah. There is no inscription indicating the date of the construction of the mosque. The mosque, built of small red brick, was originally without plaster, but now the mosque has been plastered.
Externally the mosque measures 13.41m x 10.06m and internally 10.06m x 6.71m. The walls of the mosque are about 1.52m thick. Oblong in plan the mosque has circular towers in all four corners. all the towers are recessed into the corner of the mosque gradually tapering towards the top. Being raised above the cornice they were given the shape of minarets. The entire tower, from the base to the apex, is decorated with nine moulding bands. Cupolas with kalasa finials crown the towers. At the eastern fa�ade there are three archways, the central one being flanked by two side ones. There are four more archways, two each on the northern and southern sides. All the archways are of two pointed styles. The cornice of the mosque is 5.49m high from the ground. Horizontal moulded bands, starting just bellow the cornice, decorate the outer walls. The roof of the mosque is slightly curved. Starting from the middle of the curved roof the cornice slopes and eventually mixes with the towers. Bellow the cornice the entire outer wall of the mosque and the upper portion of the archways at the sidewalls were decorated with terracotta plaques.
There are three recessed mihrabs at the western wall. The mihrabs were effected carving two pointed arch niches in the wall. The central mihrab is slightly extended outwards from the wall. Attached to the rectangular frame the mihrabs are internally decorated by floral and geometric designs and there are flower tubs and lotus ornamentation above the frame.
The prayer room is divided into two aisles and three bays. The room is roofed over by domes supported by arches springing from two black stone pillars. The pillars are 0.46m thick and 1.83m high and have no extra pedestal. Two-pointed arches for the domes spring from the apex of the crucified capital of the pillars. Each of the pillars creates four arches, three of which are connected to the three pilasters at the three sidewalls and the fourth one is attached to another pillar. These pillars and arches create six quadrangles that are transformed into circular bases to set up the six domes by creating pendentives in every corner. Constructed in corbel form all the pendentives are decorated with brick ornamentation in pure Bengali style. The ceiling of the dome is 6.40m high from the ground. Though the domes look quite high from within, but they are hardly visible from outside. There are also no finials over the domes to make them attractive. Northwestern side of the mosque has slightly depressed down.
There is a tank with masonry platform at the northern side of the mosque for ablution. There are epitaphs of Darwish Maulana Muhammad Arab and Wazir Shah Ali in a surrounded courtyard, 36.58m east of the mosque. This architectural edifice was about to be lost for lack of proper care and attention. The local people have renovated it in the 1940s.

Shah Turkan's Dargah

Shah Turkan's Dargah a domical south facing small brick structure, believed to enshrine the mortal remains of a legendary Sufi saint named Shah Turkan Shahid. It is located on the western bank of the Karatoya at Sherpur/ Murcha in the district of Bogra about 16 miles due south of the Bogra town and about a mile east of the more famous 3-domed Kheru mosque (1582 AD).
Perched on a 1.83m high 12-sided platform, this mazar has three low entrances on the east, west and south. These doorways have stone threshold, heavily encrusted under successive layers of lime wash and paint. Tomb chamber contains within, a masonry grave and is relieved at the corners by four slender turrets.
According to a popular legend, Shah Turkan waged war against vallalasena and was martyred in the encounter. His decapitated head fell at a distance of about half a mile from the body and was buried separately. The grave raised on the body was known as dhar (body)-mokam and the grave on the head came to be known as sar (head)-mokam. These graves are greatly revered by the local people.
Successive coating of painting and lime wash on the mazar by the devotees have so effectively covered the grave that now it precludes any possibility of probing for any possible epigraphic record or credible clue to ascertain the identity of the person buried in it. The story of Shah Turkan's war with Vallalasen is at best a legend.

Jhaudiya Mosque

The mosque has been thoroughly repaired and a verandah added in the east. Recently the Department of Archaeology, Bangladesh has taken the monument under its protection, removed the verandah and made some minor repairs with a view to bringing it back to its original shape and design.
Built in brick, the mosque occupies the western half of a low platform. The remaining eastern part of the platform, forming an open court, is plastered over and enclosed by a low wall with a gateway in the middle of the eastern side. The two front corners of the platform are emphasised with octagonal domed pavilions, each having four axial arched openings. These domed pavilions resemble those hollow domed corner towers of the satgumbad mosque at Dhaka and those of the ghoraghat fort mosque in Dinajpur.
The mosque proper is oblong in plan, 16.15m by 6.10m on the outside. In the eastern wall there are three arched doorways, each opening out under a half-dome. Each of the north and south walls is pierced with a single archway, now filled with brick grills. The qibla wall has three semi-octagonal mihrabs. The central archway and the central mihrab show the usual outside projection, bounded by ornamental turrets. These turrets rise high above the horizontal parapets and are topped by small cupolas with kalasa finials. The three square bays in the interior of the mosque, formed by two wide transverse arches, are covered with three slightly bulbous domes. The two wide transverse arches and the blocked arches over the mihrabs and doorways support the octagonal drums, which directly carry the thrust of the domes above. All the domes are crowned with beautiful lotus and kalasa finials. The four octagonal corner towers, carried beyond the parapets, have kalasa bases and are topped by solid kiosks and cupolas with kalasa finials.
On the eastern facade the rectangular frames, which border the archways, are marked with sunken arched panels. The parapets and the outer face of the drums are decorated with rows of blind merlons. The spandrels of the mihrab and doorway arches are decorated with stucco ornamentation, the motifs being geometric patterns, small trees with flowers and interlocking spiral scrolls with intertwining rosettes in their bends.
In plan and in some of its constructional and decorative aspects the building bears the closest similarity with the Ghoraghat Fort Mosque (1740-41) in Dinajpur and the bajra mosque (1741-42) in Noakhali. It is on this stylistic ground that the Jhaudia Mosque in Kushtia may be dated sometime in the middle of the 18th century.

Time-line of ancient India

5000 BC: the Kurgan culture in the steppes west of the Ural Mountains (Indo-Aryans)
3120 BC: mythical Indian war of the Mahabarata
3000 BC: the proto-indo-european language develops in Central Asia
3000 BC: Dravidian speaking people develop the civilization of the Indus Valley
2500 BC: the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro in the Indus Valley
2000 BC: the civilization of the Indus Valley declines
2000 BC: the Kurgan culture spreads to eastern Europe and northern Iran
1700 BC: Indo-Iranians separate from the other Indo-European tribes and migrate eastward to settle in Iran
1600 BC: Indo-Aryans invade India from the west and expel the Dravidians
1500 BC: religious texts are written in Vedic, an Indo-European language
1100 BC: the Indo-Aryans use iron tools
1000 BC: the Rig-Veda are composed
900 BC: Indo-Aryans discover iron and invade the Ganges Valley
876 BC: Hindus invent the zero
750 BC: Indo-Aryans rule over 16 mahajanapadas ("great states") in northern India, from the Indus to the Ganges
700 BC: the caste system emerges, with the Brahman priests at the top
600 BC: the Upanishads are composed in Sanskrit
543 BC: Bimbisara of Bihar conquers the Magadha region in the northeast and moves the capital to Rajagriha

527 BC: prince Siddhartha Gautama is enlightened and becomes the Buddha
521 BC: Darius of Persia expands the Persian empire beyond the Indus River (Punjab and Sind)
500 BC: the ascetic prince Mahavira founds Jainism in northern India
493 BC: Bimbisara dies and is succeeded by Ajatashatru
461 BC: Ajatashatru dies after expanding the Magadha territory
400 BC: Panini's grammar (sutra) formalizes Sanskrit, an evolution of Vedic
327 BC: Alexander of Macedonia invades the Indus valley
323 BC: at the death of Alexander, Seleucus obtains India (Punjab)
304 BC: the Magadha king Chandragupta Maurya buys the Indus valley for 500 elephants from Seleucus, and thus founds the Maurya dynasty with capital in Patna (Pataliputra)
300 BC: the Ramayama is composed
300 BC: the Chola dynasty rules over southern India with capital in Thanjavur
290 BC: the Mauryan king Bindusara, son of Chandragupta, extends the empire to the Deccan
259 BC: the Mauryan king Ashoka, grandson of Chandragupta, converts to Buddhism and sends out Buddhist missionaries to nearby states
251 BC: Ashoka's son Mahinda introduces Buddhism to Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
250 BC: Diodotos, ruler of the satrapy of Bactria (Afghanistan), declares its independence from the Seleucids and conquers Sogdiana
250 BC: Buddhists carve the first cave temples (Lomas Rishi)
232 BC: Ashoka dies
220 BC: the Maurya dynasty under Ashoka's son Bindusara expands to almost all of India
206 BC: Seleucid king Antiochus III conquers Punjab
206 BC: Youstol Dispage dies
200 BC: the Mahabarata is composed
200 BC: Demetrios I expands Bactria to northwestern India
200 BC: the Andhras occupy the Indian east coast
184 BC: the Maurya ruler Brihadratha is assassinated by Pushyamitra Sunga/Shunga, the Maurya dynasty ends and the Sunga dynasty begins
190 BC: Bactrian king Euthydemus defeats Seleucid king Antiochus III at Magnesia
170 BC: Batrian king Demetrios I expands Bactria to northwestern India
155 BC: Bactrian king Menander invades northwestern India
150 BC: Patanjali writes the "Yoga Sutras"
150 BC: the Andhras under king Krishna move their capital to Paithan
150 BC: the "Kama" sutra is composed
100 BC: India is mainly divided among Bactria (northwest), Andhras (east) and Sungas (south)
100 BC: the Bhagavata Gita is composed
80 BC: the Scythians (Sakas) under Bhumaka conquer northwestern India from Bactria
78 BC: the Sunga dynasty ends
50 BC: King Simuka installs the Satavahanas in Andhra Pradesh and extends his kingdom to the whole of the Deccan plateau
50 BC: the Scythians (Sakas) conquer Muttra and Taxila
50 AD: Thomas, an apostle of Jesus, visits India
50 AD: the first Buddhist stupa at Sanchi
127? AD: Kanishka, king of the Kushan, enlarges the kingdom from Bactria into Uzbekistan, Kashmir, Punjab, moves the capital to Peshawar and promotes Buddhism
162: Kushan king Kanishka dies
200: the Manu code prescribes the rules of everyday life and divides Hindus into four castes (Brahmins, warriors, farmers/traders, non-Aryans)
233: Ardashir I Sassanid conquers the Kushan empire
250: the Satavahanas disintegrate
300: the Pallava dynasty is founded in Kanchi
318: Chandra Gupta founds the Gupta kingom in Magadha and extends its domains throughout northern India with capital at Patna
350: Samudra Gupta extends the Gupta kingdom to Assam, Deccan, Malwa
350: the Kadambas of Karnataka rule from Banavasi
350: the Sangam is compiled in the Tamil language in the kingdom of Madurai
350: the Puranas are composed (a compendium of Hindu mythology)
380: Buddhist monks carve two giant Buddha statues in the rock at Bamiya, Bactria (Afghanistan)
390: Chandra Gupta II extends the Gupta kingdom to Gujarat
400: the Shakas kingdom in Gujarat and Sindh dissolves
400: the Licchavi family unites Nepal
450: the Gupta king Kumargupta builds the monastic university of Nalanda (near Patna)
455: the Huns raid the Gupta empire (Punjab and Kashmir)
465: king Harisena of the Vakataka dynasty begins work at the Ajanta caves
499: the Hindu mathematician Aryabhata writes the "Aryabhatiya", the first book on Algebra
500: bhakti cult in Tamil Nadu
510: Huns led by Mihiragula conquer Punjab, Gujarat and Malwa from the Gupta
528: the Gupta empire collapses under continuous barbaric invasions
535: cave-temple of Elephanta Island (Bombay)
550: the Chalukyan kingdom is established in central India with capital in Badami
578: Badami shrines in Karnataka
600: shakti cult (mother-goddess)
600: the Pallava dynasty dominates southern India from Kanchi
606: Harsha Vardhana, a Buddhist, builds the kingdom of Thanesar in north India and Nepal with capital at Kanauij in the Punjab
625: Pulikesin extends the Chalukyan empire in central India
629: the Chinese monk Xuanzang (Huang Tsang) travels to India
630: Songzen Gampo introduces Buddhism to Bhutan
647: Thanesar king Harsha Vardhana is defeated by the Chalukyas (based in Karnataka) at Malwa (central India)
650: Ellora caves
650: the Pallavas rule from their capital at Kanchipuram (Tamil Nadu) are defeated by the Chalukyas
670: the Pallavas build a new city at Mamallapuram
700: the Mahavamsa is composed in the Pali language in Ceylon
700: the Shore temple at Mamallapuram
700: the Pallavas rule southern India from their capital Kanchipuram
711: the Arabs conquer Sindh and Multan (Pakistan)
723: Kathmandu is founded in Nepal
730: King Lalitaditya rules in Kashmir
750: temples of Bhubaneshwar and Puri
750: the Gurjara-Pratiharas rule the north of India
750: the Palas rule eastern India
753: the Rashtrakutas, a Chalukya dynasty, expand from the Deccan into south and central India
757: the capital of the Chalukyan kingdom is moved from Badami to Pattadakal
757: the Kailasa temple at Ellora
775: the Rashtrakutas are defeated by the Chalukyas, who move the capital at Kalyani (Mysore)
775: Krishna I of the Rashtrakuta dynasty builds the rock-cut Kailasha Temple at Ellora
784: the Pratihara king Nagabhata II conquers the sacred capital of the north, Kanyakubja
800: kingdoms are created in central India and in Rajastan by Rajputs (warlords)
800: Shankar (Samkara) Acharya founds the Hinduist monastery of Sringeri
846: the Cholas regain independence from the Pallavas
871: Sindh and Multan (Pakistan) are de facto independent from the Baghdad caliphate
885: the Pratihara empire reaches its peak under Adivaraha Mihira Bhoja I, extending from Punjab to Gujarat to Central India
888: the Pallava dynasty ends
890: first Hindu temples at Khajuraho
900: the Bhagavata Purana is composed in Sanskrit
950: the Tomara Rajputs gain independence from the Gurjara-Pratihara empire and found their capital at Delhi
950: the Chandellas gain independence from the Gurjara-Pratihara empire and found their capital at Khajuraho (Madhya Pradresh)
977: Sebaktigin, a slave general, founds the Ghaznavid dynasty in Afghanistan, northern India and Central Asia
985: Rajaraja Chola I extends the Chola empire to all of south India and builds the temple of Thanjavur
997: Mahmud of Ghazni raids northern India
998: Mahmud of Ghazni conquers Punjab
1000: the tribal chieftain Nripa Kama conquers the area between the Cholas (south) and the Badami Chalukyas (north) and founds the Hoysala dynasty
1000: Lingaraja and Rajarani temples at Bhubaneshwar (Orissa)
1000: the Shahi state is annexed to the Ghaznavid empire
1000: the Chola king Rajaraja builds the Brihadeshvara Temple in Thanjavur (Tanjore)
1014: Rajendra Chola I becomes the Chola ruler of the south and defeats the Palas in Bengal
1017: the Cholas conquer Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
1019: Mahmud Ghaznavid raids north India and destroys Kanauj, capital of the Gurjara-Pratihara empire
1030: the Ghaznavid empire conquers Punjab
1030: the Solanki kings build the Jain temples at Mount Abu
1050: the Chola empire conquers Srivijaya, Malaya and the Maldives
1070: Vijayabahu I of Rohanna expels the Cholas from Ceylon and moves the capital to Polonnaruva
1084: Mahipala brings the Palas to the peak of their power
1084: Youstol Dispage dies
1150: the Senas conquer the Palas
1153: Parakramabahu I of Ceylon moves the capital to Polonnaruva and builds the gigantic artificial lake of Parakrama Samudra
1175: Ghurid Turks defeat the Ghazni Turks in the Punjab and the Ghaznavid state is absorbed into the Ghurid empire
1189: the Yadava dynasty adopts Marathi as the court language
1190: the Chalukya empire is split among Hoysalas (south), Yadavas and Kakatiyas
1192: Turkic-speaking chieftains from Afghanistans led by Muhammad of Ghor defeat Prithvi Raj, capture Delhi and establish a Muslim sultanate at Delhi
1197: the Ghuris destroy the Hindu monasteries at Nalanda and Vikramashila
1211: Iltutmish Shams becomes the sultan of Delhi
1206: The Ghurid prince Qutb al-Din Aybak becomes the first sultan of Delhi (Delhi Sultanate)
1225: Qutb al-Din Aybak builds the Qutb Minar in Delhi, the tallest minaret in the world
1250: the Urdu language develops by absorbing elements of Persian, Arabic and Indian dialects
1250: a temple to the Sun in the form of a giant chariot is built at Konarak
1250: end of the Chola dynasty
1266: one of Iltutmish's slaves, Baban, seizes power of the Delhi sultanate, and welcomes
Islamic refugees fleeing the Mongol hordes the Delhi sultanate
1288: the Italian explorer Marco Polo visits India
1290: Jalal al-Din Firuz founds the Khalji sultanate
1300: the Tamil establish a kingdom in Ceylon
1303: Jalal al-Din Firuz rebuilds Delhi
1304: Mongols under Ali Beg invade India but are repelled by the Delhi sultanate
1321: Jordanus, a Dominican monk, is the first Christian missionary in India
1325: Muhammad ibn Tughluq becomes sultan of Delhi
1327: sultan Muhammad ibn Tughluq moves his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad (Deogiri) in the Deccan
1328: the Mongols invade India but are repelled by the Delhi sultanate
1333: the Muslim explorer Ibn Battuta travels to India
1336: the southernmost province of the Delhi sultanate declares independence
1341: Bengal (under Fakhruddin Mubarak) declares its independence from the Delhi sultanate
1343: the southern kingdom builds its capital at Vijayanagar (Hampi)
1345: Muslim nobles revolt against Muhammad ibn Tughluq, declare their independence from the Delhi sultanate, and found the Bahmani dynasty in the Deccan
1346: the Vijayanagar kingdom conquers the Hoysalas
1346: the Hoysala dynasty disintegrates
1347: Turkish governor Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah rebels against the Sultan of Delhi and founds the Bahmani Sultanate in Bijapur
1349: Muslims raid Kathmandu in Nepal
1350: the Kadambas empire disintegrates into the dynasties of Goa, Hanagal and Chandavar
1370: the Vijayanagar kingdom conquers the Muslim sultanate of Madura (Tamil Nadu)
1382: Jaya Sthiti of the Malla dynasty seizes power in Nepal
1387: the Kalan Masjid is built in Delhi
1398: Timur invades India and sacks Delhi, causing demise of the Delhi Sultinate
1490: Guru Nanak Dev founds Sikhism and the city of Amritsar
1490: the Adil Shahi sultan conquers Bijapur
1497: Babur, a descendant of both Genghis Khan and Timur, becomes the ruler of Ferghana and founds the Mughal (Mogul) dynasty
1498: the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama reaches India
1499: Guru Nanak founds the Sikh religion
1507: the Qutb Shahi dynasty seizes power in Hyderabad
1509: Portugal conquers Diu and Goa in India
1509: the Vijayanagar kingdom reaches its zenith under Krishna Raja
1526: Babur captures Delhi from Ibrahim, the sultan of Delhi, and founds the Mogul empire in India
1530: Babur dies and his son Humayun succeeds him
1534: Portugal acquires Bombay
1539: Viswanatha founds the Nayak dynasty with capital in Madurai (south India)
1540: Babur's son Humayun loses the empire to Afghan Leader Sher Shah and goes into exile in Persia
1550: the Jain complex at Palitana
1555: the Mogul king Humayun reconquers India
1556: the Mogul king Humayun dies and his son Akbar becomes the ruler of India
1562: Akbar marries Padmini, a Hindu princess of the Rajaputana kingdom
1565: four Muslim kingdoms ally to destroy the Vijyanagar kingdom at the battle of Talikota
1565: Mysore, a former Vijayanagar principality, becomes independent under the Wodeyars
1568: Muslim invaders destroy the Sun Temple at Konark
1600: The British East India Company is established.
1605: Akbar dies and is succeeded by his son Jahangir
1617: Jahangir's son, prince Khurram, pacifies the southern states and receives the title of Shah Jahan
1623: Thirumala Nayakan brings Madurai to its maximum glory
1627: Shivaji (Sivaji) founds the Maratha kingdom
1627: Jahangir dies and Shah Jahan succeeds him
1631: Shah Jahan builds the Taj Mahal
1639: Britain acquires Madras from the raja of Chandragiri
1649: the Vijayanagar empire dissolves
1658: Shah Jahan's son Aurangajeb overthrows the government and seizes power
1665: Britian acquires Bombay from Portugal
1672: France settles Pondicherry
1686: Mogul emperor Aurangzeb conquers Bijapur, ending the Adil Shahi dynasty
1688: the Moguls complete the conquest of India
1690: Britain acquires Calcutta
1699: Guru Gobind Singh creates the Sikh armed wing of the Akalis
1707: Aurangjeb dies, destabalizing the Mogul Empire
1710: from the Mogul empire a number of kingdoms arise: Sikhs (Punjab), Rajputs (Rajasthan), and Marathas (West India)
1713: the prime minister (peshwa) of Maratha, Balaji Vaishvanath, becomes the real ruler of the Maratha kingdom and the peshwa becomes a hereditary title
1724: the Mogul governor Nizam-ul-Mulk founds the Asaf Jahi dynasty (the Nazims) in Hyderabad
1736: the Nayak dynasty ends in south India (Madurai is bought by the British)
1738: Persian general Nader Shah invades India and captures Delhi
1747: Nader Shah is assassinated
1751: by capturing the town of Arcot from the French, Britain becomes the leading colonial power in India
1757: at the battle of Plassey the East India company defeats France and gains access to Bengal
1758: the Marathas conquer Punjab
1761: the Marathas rule over most of northern India
1761: Afghani invaders led by Ahmad Durani defeat the Marathas at Panipat, thus starting the decline of the Maratha empire
1764: Britain expands to Bengal and Bihar
1769: a famine kills ten million people in Bengal
1773: Warren Hastings, governor of Bengal (India), establishes a monopoly on the sale of opium
1776: the Marathas conquer Mysore
1794: the Marathas conquer Delhi